Bio 265 Microbiology Unknown Report​​​​​Due: 12/08/2022 You are being issued a n

Bio 265 Microbiology Unknown Report​​​​​Due: 12/08/2022
You are being issued a numbered test tube containing a mixed culture in TSB.  There is a gram- and a gram+, and they must first be isolated.
GOAL: To isolate and identify the 2 organisms assigned to species level from a list of possible organisms, using the fewest number of tests possible.
a) What is the FIRST requirement in culture identification?
b) Always read about the test you are about to perform before you do it.  If you perform a test incorrectly it will often result in an incorrect reading, thus leading you on a wild goose chase when you can least afford it.
c) Dichotomous Keys in books and in the lab manual are helpful, but you should not use them verbatim.  Reasons:  they don’t always apply directly to your organism and they often include organisms that are not on your list of possible organisms.  Therefore you must devise your own keys, based on all available data, and use them to determine the probable identity of your organisms.
d) Which tests should you use?
1) Bergey’s Manual divides the chapters based on Gram stain, morphology, and metabolism.  Although it doesn’t look like it at first glance, Bergey’s Manual id a dichotomous key that uses conventional taxonomy.
2) What are the first couple of tests you should use in an identification scheme using conventional taxonomy?  Consider this well.  It is vital to getting a good grade on this assignment.
3) After that. The next tests should be tests that differentiate between the organisms that are left.
4) Then use tests that differentiate between the small groups of more closely related organisms that are left.
5) Once you have your organism determined, you should perform one test (for each organism) that confirms the identity of each organism.  Pick a test that differentiates between the last few organisms on your dichotomous key.  You may also elect to perform final comparison testing with a pure standard of your presumptive organism, available from the instructor.
Following the instructions in writing the report is a big part of the assignment.  The report will include Title, Abstract, Introduction, Methods/Materials, Results, and Discussion in scientific journal format.
a) In Methods, a COMPLETE dichotomous key, clearly showing how you identified your organisms and how ALL other organisms were eliminated (list organisms at each branch!)
b) Written rationale for why you chose a particular test at that point in your identification scheme.
c) Explain the scientific basis for every test you do.  Give an explanation of the test, what is being tested for, and what the results mean. (I am NOT looking for a description of the procedure!)
d) In Results, the outcome of every test you performed, a description of gram-stain morphology, and a description of colonial morphology on solid media.
e) In Discussion, include a well-written 3-4 paragraph description of your organism’s 
1) Usual habitat
2) Growth and metabolic features (describe its type of metabolism!)
3) And especially its importance to medical and/or industrial microbiology.
4) Description of any difficulties, problems, or explanations, if relevant.
f) Plagiarism.
Plagiarism (use of words, ideas, images, etc. without citation) is not to be tolerated and can be easily avoided by adequately referencing any and all information you use from other sources.  In the strictest sense, plagiarism is representation of the work of others as being your work, and is regarded as theft of intellectual property.  Paraphrasing others’ words too closely may be construed as plagiarism in some circumstances.  In journal-style papers there is virtually no circumstance in which the findings of someone else cannot be expressed in your own words and with a proper citation of the source.
g) With your written report, submit 2 correctly labelled slants of your two organisms.
h) When you are writing your report, have this guide at hand.  Follow it very closely; the format of your report is as important to your grade as are the results of your tests.
Your paper should follow this standard scientific journal format:
TITLE – simple, descriptive, and to the point
ABSTRACT- The abstract should be used to bridge the gap between the title with a few words and a paper of several pages.  Remember that the abstract will be read by more people than the paper itself.  An informative abstract contains a summary of all the main points that are in the essay or the paper.  To prepare an informative abstract an author should read the essay or paper, making notes as he or she progresses.  Abstracts are often written AFTER the paper is complete, and include a sentence on your Introduction, Methods, and Results.  You should state your major findings here.
INTRODUCTION- An introduction to a scientific paper should normally not exceed 400 words (check the requirements of the Journal to which you intend to submit your paper) and it should cover the following subjects:
1) The background of the subject to be investigated
2) Give a brief resume of what is the state of present knowledge about the subject to be investigated quoting the appropriate references.
3) Identify gaps in existing knowledge
4) Explain the reasoning for the investigation. (e.g. “Why we should care about this.”)
METHODS/MATERIALS – This section deals with these main topics:
1) Equipment and materials used
2) Experimental design
3) Methods and analysis used, if statistical (and chemical, if required)
4) Your dichotomous key, which is your hypothesis.
RESULTS – This section should contain:
1) The information which the investigation has provided (observations made)
2) Tables and graphs which summarize the data collected
3) Text used to draw attention to the main features presented in any tables or graphs.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS – This section should summarize the main findings of the experiment undertaken.
1) Should draw reasoned conclusions
2) Should compare these conclusions with those drawn by other workers
3) Should indicate the practical implications of the findings
4) Should indicate what further research is needed.
Citations of references in the text
Reference may be cited in two ways; either “Brown, smith and Jones (2006) and Abdulahi (1998) confirmed these results…” or “These results were confirmed by similar experiments (Brown, Smith and Jones, 2006; Abdulahi, 2006)”. The names of all the authors (but not their initials) should be given the first time the reference is cited in the text.  For subsequent citations, if there are three or more authors an abbreviation of the forms “Brown et al. (2001)…” should be used.  Where more than one reference is used for the same author in one year, lowercase letters should be used to distinguish between them, for example, “McLean (2002b)”.
List of references at end of paper
The reference section contains a list of all the references cited in the text.  References should be arranged in alphabetical order (according to the last name of the first author).  Each reference to an article should contain the following:
1) Name (or names) of authors(s), (each) followed by initials.
2) Year of publication in parentheses.
3) Title of article
4) Title of journal, either in full or abbreviated according to the World List of Scientific Periodicals
5) Volume of journal, underlined
6) Number of first and last pages of article
For example:
Hutber A.M., and Kitching R.P. (2000). The role of management segregations in the control of intra-herd foot and mouth disease. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 32:285-294
Each reference to a book should contain:
a) Name(s) and year, as above
b) Title of book.  The most important words in the title should be given capital letters, e.g. “Milk and Beef Production in the Tropics”.
c) Publisher and place of publication, e.g. “Oxford University Press, London”.
Each reference to an article which is published in a book of Conference Proceedings should also contain the title of the book and its editor.  For example:
Chalmers, E.E. (2004). Advantages and disadvantages of nomadism with particular reference to the Republic of Sudan. In: Beef Cattle Production in Developing Countries (Ed. Smith, A.J.), pp.388-397.  Centre for Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh
Attention should be paid to uniformity of punctuation.  Please check the list of references, since it is very frustrating for the reader to find that references in the text are not included, or that they are wrongly quoted.  Make sure that references in the text are in the reference list – programs such as Word, Papyrus, and Endnote can assist with this chore and that of putting reference together.
How to cite a website:
Structure: Last, F. M. (Year, Mont Date Published). Article Title. Website Title. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from URL.
Lyme Disease Data. (December 6, 2013). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 3, 2014, from
Cain, K. (2012, June 29). The Negative Effects of Facebook on Communication. Social Media Today RSS.  Retrieved January 3, 2013, from