Chapter 8: “World War II: The Betrayal of Promises” 1. Zoot Suit Riots (1943) De

Chapter 8: “World War II: The Betrayal of Promises”
1. Zoot Suit Riots (1943)
Description: Violent clashes in Los Angeles between U.S. servicemen and Mexican American youths wearing zoot suits, highlighting racial tensions and discrimination.
2. Bracero Program Initiated (1942)
Description: A bilateral agreement between the U.S. and Mexico to bring Mexican laborers to work in agriculture and railroads, addressing wartime labor shortages but leading to exploitation and harsh working conditions.
Chapter 9: “The 1950s: Becoming Mexican American”
3. Felix Longoria Affair (1949-1950)
Description: The refusal to bury Mexican American WWII veteran Felix Longoria in a Texas cemetery, leading to national outcry and the involvement of Senator Lyndon B. Johnson, who arranged for Longoria’s burial in Arlington National Cemetery.
4. Operation Wetback (1954)
Description: A U.S. government immigration law enforcement initiative aimed at deporting undocumented Mexican immigrants, resulting in the mass deportation of many Mexican nationals, including U.S. citizens.
Chapter 10: “The Chicano Movement: Grassroots Activism”
5. Formation of the American G.I. Forum (1948)
Description: An organization founded to address the concerns of Mexican American veterans, advocating for their civil rights and against discriminatory practices.
6. Delano Grape Strike (1965)
Description: A labor strike initiated by Filipino farm workers and joined by the United Farm Workers (UFW) led by Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta, fighting for better wages and working conditions in California’s grape industry.
7. Chicano Moratorium (1970)
Description: A large anti-Vietnam War protest by Chicano activists in Los Angeles, which turned violent, resulting in several deaths, including journalist Ruben Salazar.
Chapter 11: “Chicano Power: The Emergence of Political Consciousness”
8. Founding of La Raza Unida Party (1970)
Description: A political party established in Texas to promote Chicano interests and increase political representation, advocating for civil rights, educational reform, and economic justice.
9. Passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) (1986)
Description: Legislation signed by President Ronald Reagan that provided amnesty to millions of undocumented immigrants while also aiming to curb illegal immigration through employer sanctions.
Additional Event (1990s)
10. Proposition 187 (1994)
Description: A California ballot initiative aimed at denying public services to undocumented immigrants, which passed but faced significant legal challenges and sparked widespread activism within the Chicano community.